Проектное управление. Стандарты и современные инструменты

Проектное управление. Стандарты и современные инструменты

30 мая 2017 года прошла самопрезентация в межотраслевом сообществе практиков «U-GROUP» (Екатеринбург). В этот раз о своей деятельности и сферах интересов рассказывала Наталья Осадчикова, обозначив тему как “Проектное управление. Стандарты и современные инструменты.”

Осадчикова Наталья

Наталья Осадчикова (Екатеринбург) — управляющий партнер межотраслевого сообщества практиков “U-GROUP”, участник Ассоциации российских специалистов и экспертов управления знаниями «КМ Альянс». Практик в сфере: управления проектами (в том числе с применением гибких методологий), реинжиниринга, оптимизации и автоматизации бизнес процессов.

В Екатеринбурге мы продолжаем цикл самопрезентаций участников межотраслевого сообщества практиков U-GROUP и Ассоциации «KM-Alliance»

Цель — познакомить всех участников сообщества со своей деятельностью, своими сферами интересов и проектами.

Рассказывая друг другу о себе, участники глубже понимают, кто и чем занимается, находят точки соприкосновения в сферах интересов. Это также позволяет обсудить актуальные вопросы, задачи, получить обратную связь, сделать запрос на недостающие ресурсы и т.д.

Наталья поделились основными тезисами:

Существует множество определений, что такое проект. Основным определением, что отражает суть этого термина,  я считаю, это:

«Проект – это целенаправленное, ограниченное по времени и ресурсам мероприятие, ориентированное на создание уникального продукта или услуги».

Продуктом проекта также может какой-то сервис или любая интеллектуальная услуга.

Решение о необходимости управлять результатами проекта, создавать необходимую документацию определяется совместно заказчиком и руководителем проекта. Процесс документирования проекта лежит в зоне ответственности руководителя проекта.

Для документирования в проекте необходимо выделить  отдельного участника или сам  руководитель берет эту функцию на себя.

Жизненный цикл проекта во всех стандартах выделяет пять основных стадий – инициация, организация, планирование, реализация и завершение.

IMG_20170530_192035

На сегодня, я считаю, очень важным этапом — это стадия прединициации. Это стадия не описана ни в одном стандарте управления проектами. Потому что она не относится к проекту, она лежит вне этой зоны проекта. Однако, является очень важной и, я считаю, правильным и важным уделять ей большое внимание. На этой стадии происходят  зарождение новых идей, новых знаний и новых проектов, которые очень важно зафиксировать и формализовать. На основании именно этой стадии и происходит формирование целей и видения проекта.

Большое внимание руководитель проекта должен уделять коммуникациям и управлению командой проекта. Коммуникации у руководителя проекта могут занимать до 80-90% времени проекта.

Основные области в управлении проектами независимо от используемой методологии и применяемых инструментов:

области управления
И немного юмора в управлении проектами никогда не помешает.

как это бывает


Сейчас очень много говорят, и стали гораздо чаще использовать Agile-методологии. Принято в нашей стране называть их гибкими методологиями, хотя правильнее называть адаптивными методами  управления.

В настоящее время все большую популярность приобретают Scrum и Kanban. В основе этих методологий лежит Agile-манифест.

Kanban – японский термин, который начали использовать применительно к производству в 60-х годах 20-го века в компании Toyota. Так называемое бережливое производство и производство по минимизации складских остатков.

Ключевые элементы, на которые опирается Канбан :

  • информационная система (это может быть просто доска, где фиксируются задачи по проекту или специализированное программное обеспечение);
  • система регулирования потребности и профессиональной ротации кадров;
  • система всеобщего и выборочного контроля качества;
  • система выравнивания производства

Методология Scrum делает акцент на итоговом процессе, на качестве управления проектом и на команде. Очень важны деловые и личностные качества людей работающих в команде. Одно из ключевых  правил Scrum –методологии это то, что за весь результат проекта отвечает вся команда. Это условие предполагает наличие у каждого члена команды таких качеств как взаимопомощь, поддержка и готовность делиться знаниями и своими ресурсами. Ритуалы Scum направлены на соблюдение этого правила.

ритуалы scrum
В основе Scrum лежат роли (Scrum Master, Product Owner и команда), артефакты (список бизнес-требований,  список задач на один спринт, ежедневные sprint-meeting, демо и ревью спринта). Scrum делает упор на самоорганизующуюся, многофункциональную команду, способную решить необходимые задачи с минимальной координацией.

Обе методологии имеют визуализацию решаемых задач — Канбан- доска и Scrum-доска.
Это помогает всей команде контролировать скорость проекта и управлять его качеством.

Канбан отличается от SCRUM в первую очередь ориентацией на задачи. Если в SCRUM основная ориентация команды — это успешное выполнение спринтов (надо признать, что это так), то в Канбан на первом месте задачи.

При сравнении этих двух методологий приходишь к выводу, что Канбан более гибкая методология. Опыт показывает, что к ней проще перейти в классической структуре управления.

Отзыв Ксении Миковой:

«Вчера я побывала в роли участника нашего профориентационного курса https://www.facebook.com/images/emoji.php/v9/f21/1.5/16/1f682.png🚂и завороженно слушала самопрезениацию Наталья Осадчикова о Проектном управлении! Кто такой Руководитель проекта? Чем он занимается? Кто такой Scram-мастер и что он делает? Какие ещё участники проекта бывают и в чем их роли, задачи?

Наталья легко и доступно разложила все по полочкам и существенно расширила представления о сущности, полезности, методах управления проектами. https://www.facebook.com/images/emoji.php/v9/fc7/1.5/16/261d.png☝️поделилась своим огромным опытом и знаниями в этой теме!!!

Даже представить себе не могла, какая это глубокая и интересная сфера и как важно владеть знаниями, технологиями и уметь их применять для эффективности любого проекта!

Хочу выразить благодарность и самой Наталье и всем участникам cообщества практиков U-GROUP!»

3

j.krushinskaya@km-alliance.ru

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